So much attention has been paid to the intermixture of white and black blood as a factor in accounting for the success of certain blacks that the researcher looked at all the biographical sketches contained in Carter G. Woodson's Negro Makers of History (Washington, 1928) to ascertain whether other, non-biographical, factors might not go far toward explaining even the outstanding blacks.

In what class was he born? What special or atypical consideration did he receive from persons of high status? The following data were discovered, as condensed:

John Williams, freed in 1708. His son, Francis, was sent to elementary school by the Duke of Montague, then living in Jamaica. "He then sent him to an English grammar school and Cambridge University." He became a school master.

"Some blacks, trained by pious persons, preached to audiences of the white race. Among these was Jacob Biship . . . near the close of the eighteenth century he was made pastor of the first Baptist church (white) of Portsmouth, Virginia."

"Richard Allen, the founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church . . . born a slave . . . sold with his family to a planter living near Dover, Delaware . . . in 1777 he was converted and began his career as a minister three years later. Struck with the force of his preaching, his master permitted him . . . . " Master was converted, freed slaves; Bishop Asbury gave him assignments to preach. Later founded separate church.

"James Derham. Became a physician while a slave, trained by Dr. George West, a surgeon in the sixteenth British regiment during the Revolution." Later, free, he had a $3000 practice in New Orleans.

"Phyllis Wheatley was a slave of a Boston family that gave her every opportunity for improvement . . . unusual advancement in Latin and history." She wrote verse. Her masters gave her a chance.

"Benjamin Banneker, free mother, slave father, never in bondage. "At that time, a black of this class had many of the privileges accorded to white men." Endicotes -- well known, "supplied him with books." Made first American clock. Jefferson put him on commission to survey and lay out Washington, D.C.

Prince Hall, born in Barbados -- mother free, of French descent. He became father of black Masonry. (Is not freedom more important than racial admixture?)

One of first insurrectionists was Denmark Vesey, "a well educated black man."

Henry Boyd was "a freedman who by extra labor saved enough money to purchase himself and moved to Cincinnati." Invented a corded bed . . . hired 25 employees.

"Robert Gordon, the other enterprising black man in Cincinnati . . . was born a slave of a rich yachtsman in Richmond, Virginia. His master placed him in charge of a coal yard. He managed it so faithfully that his owner gave him all the slack resulting from the handling of coal. By selling this to local manufacturers, he accumulated thousands of dollars . . . . " He speculated in coal . . . invested in bonds, dabbled in real estate.

(Period of 1840 - 60, anti-slave notherners) "Among the first of these black spokesmen to appear was Dr. James McGune Smith. He was a distinguished graduate in medicine of the University of Glasgow and for years a practitioner in the City of New York."

"Another of these orators was Henry Highland Garnet, the son of a kidnapped African chief . . . . He became a popular preacher and lecturer."

J. W. C. Pennington. "Noted contemporary writer . . . born a slave in Maryland . . . unadulterated black blood . . . no opportunity for early education, but after his release from bondage . . . became a preacher . . . made trips to Europe."

"Another forceful black leader of that day, Samuel R. Ward, was aided by Gerrit Smith in obtaining a liberal education . . . preacher."

Josiah Henson "original Uncle Tom . . . both shoulder blades broken . . . by Maryland planter . . . escape to Canada . . . undergound railway . . . one of founders of British-American Manual Labor Institute . . . business man in Canada. Received by Queen Victoria."

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