Edward E. Yoder (398): born 1879; president of Barker-Jennings Hardware company, "one of most important business concerns in Lynchburg."

Family: father: Freedman's bureau; executive head of local public school system for blacks (Lynchburg are) from 1870 - 1905.
father's father: prosperous farmer in Penn.

Evaluation: No other data given. Father, grandfather, and subject were all "of some importance."

Albert S. and William Henry Nowlin (p. 404): born 1878; common school education, wholesale coal business; "progressive business men of the city of Lynchburg."

Family: father: colonel, prosperous merchant at Oakville, improved farm.
father's father: captain.

Evaluation: Family is said to have descended from an indentured servant, James Nowland, who married the daughter of the planter to who he was indented. Except for the relatives whose work is not given, there is no sign of social mobility.

William Alexander Baker (p. 411): born ca. 1890; Shenandoah Valley Academy, Episcopal High School, and Washington and Lee University; first lieutenant in World War; president of Baker and Company, Inc., a wholesale grocery house "founded in 1785 and which has passed successively from father to son." President of city council, clubs, lodges, director: lives in "fine old residence built by Hessian prisoners during Revolution."

Family: father: AB. from U. of Vir., president of Shen. Valley National Bank, president of Virginia woolen mills, chocolate business.
brothers: one connected with chocolate business in New York City; one in chocolate business at Winchester; one theatre manager and in chocolate and grocery business.

Evaluation: Overwhelming evidence of social class rigidity.

William Harvey Nickels (p. 417): born 1878; public schools, Shoemaker College, student at Roanoke College, Washington and Lee Law School; mayor of Gates City, stockholder, owns "a good home and three other dwellings." Leading lawyer of Gates City.

Family: father: private in Civil War; taught school; farmer.
father's father: thousand acres, merchant, town names Nichelsville.
mother's father: colonel, at one time owned 96 slaves.
mother's mother: direct descendant of George Mason.
great-grandfather: acquired a large amount of land, used slave labor.

Evaluation: Civil War seems to have dislocated father, but son is "on top."

Sidney Smith Gresham (p. 423): born 1875; Norfolk Male Academy, one year at Vir. Poly. Institute; 8 years deputy county treasurer, 4 years county commissioner of revenue; vestryman, farmer, merchant, chairman of county board of education, president of realtor corporation, confectionary business.

Family: father: Sergeant, wholesale commission merchant, established firm of Gresham and Sons; Episcopal vestryman and Sunday School superintendent.
children: one with B.B. from state normal, one student at Vir. Poly. Inst.

Evaluation: Subject and father very much alike in status; subject is versatile!

Robert E. Whitehead (p. 427): born 1873; public schools, William and Mary; taught three years; Medical College of Virginia, president of county medical association and councillor of Virginia State Medical Society; public health officer; also operates Kempsville Cash Store.

Family: father: House of Delegates, 1883 - 1884, chairman of school board, steward at Methodist church, one lodge.
son: ensign of U.S.N., graduate of Annapolis.

Evaluation: Professional son stands somewhat higher than farmer-politician father, but father was a person of some importance.

George W. Layman (p. 433): born ca. 1868; home schools, Ashland College, Bridgewater Collge; has been merchant, farmer, and banker; postmaster of Troutville.

Family: father: school teacher, then farmer, "accumulated many acres."
father's father: farmer.
mother's father: born in log cabin; erected good brick house, son of pioneer who ran a transportation business (overland) to Lynchburg.
children: one was two years at Washington and Lee, forester; one married a doctor; one married a name.

Evaluation: A versatile family; all had some education; perhaps there is some evidence of higher status here.

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