In this page, I explain with four examples why I did not use data from before Arnoul de Metz (582-640) in the rest of my genealogy pages, and how I did my research. Each generation has a name in black and a name in blue. Each name in blue has one or more links to other websites offering supporting data, such as Geni, Findagrave and Familypedia, like this:

Arnoul de Metz (582-640) and St. Doda (586-612)
Ansegisel de Metz (602-662) and St. Begga (615-693)
Pépin Arnulfing d'Héristal (635-714) and Alpaïdis d'Austrasia (654-714)
Charles Martel (686-741) and Rotrude von Trier (690-724)


Arnoul de Metz (582-640) has three links embedded in the name.


https://www.geni.com/people/Saint-Arnoul-Bishop-of-Metz/6000000003302337846
https://familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/Arnulf_of_Metz_(582-640)
https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/174751577/saint_arnulf-of_metz


I use Geneanet for the images, but if I find information on Geneanet that cannot be confirmed elsewhere, I look for a different path which can be confirmed, and stop when no more confirming data can be found.
The parents of Arnoul de Metz and his wife Doda are uncertain. There is no confirmed family connection between the Carolingian Dynasty and the Merovingian Dynasty (who preceded them) before Charles Martel, founder of the Carolingian Dynasty, defeated the Moors (Muslims) in the Battle of Tours in 732 AD, sending them back to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain), where they ruled for seven more centuries, as our Spanish ancestors fought against them for many generations until they were finally expelled from Europe.
The mother of Gertrude de Baviere (560-) is uncertain.
The parents of Itta de Nivelles (592-652) are uncertain, but Geni offers a good explanation concerning the uncertainty, well worth reading.
The website that got me interested in finding the lineage back to Charlemagne was Familypedia, when I searched for Edith Windsor (1515-1563) on Google.


https://www.google.com/search?q=Edith+Windsor+(1515-1563)


People were once named after their fathers, like Jakobsson or Andersdotter or Fitzrobert or Fitzroy, after their professions, like Robert the Baker and John the Blacksmith, and after the places they were from, like de Lascours or de Washington, where 'de' or 'von' or 'of' was used by the nobility ruling over their area. After the Norman Conquest and the Domesday Book, records were kept in great detail of all land and property for tax purposes, and people began to use surnames to determine title, or inheritance of property, and for taxation in Richard II’s Poll Tax lists of 1381. Genealogical data from before this period is often speculative when definitive records were not kept or that do not survive to this day. The most accurate records were kept by the nobility, who used their lineage to justify their status, in court documents and church records.

I searched for every name similarly on Google, and kept notes about uncertain ancestry. There were variations in the year of birth and death on different websites, so I chose the most likely combination. For example, it is very unlikely that Edith de Windsor lived to the age of 98 in the 1500s. There were also differences in the names and the spellings of the names, so I chose the name in the language of the country where the person was born. Genealogy is a giant puzzle and this website is a 'best effort,' subject to change whenever I can find better information.

Geni and Findagrave offer the most reliable data. Geneanet has many impressive images, but the images often have mistakes in them, with some data presented by Geneanet members which are so far-fetched as to show extremely wishful thinking, as the invalid examples below suggest.






























































[Unable to confirm the data before Arnoul de Metz from credible sources.]













































Lord Richard Carter (1490-1558) and Joan Elizabeth Bourchier (1500-1548)













William Evelyn Byrd (1728-1777) and Elizabeth Hill Carter (1731-1760)
John Carter Bird (1750-1830) and Mary Waller (1756-1830)
David Bird (1784-1861) and Mary Ann Broyles (1786-1852)
William Bonaparte Woolsey (1821-1905) and Alice Bird (1825-1918)
John Dixon Lovette (1842-1917) and Mary Emily Woolsey (1844-1912)
Robert E. Headrick (1866-1917) and Uona Belle Lovette (1873-1962)
William Cecil Headrick (1904-1995) and Edith Finkelstein (1902-1970)





Here is another tree that appears to validate the data going back to Numerius Julius Julius in the tree above, although it takes a different route.

























































[Unable to confirm the data before Arnoul de Metz from credible sources.]













































William Evelyn Byrd (1728-1777) and Elizabeth Hill Carter (1731-1760)
John Carter Bird (1750-1830) and Mary Waller (1756-1830)
David Bird (1784-1861) and Mary Ann Broyles (1786-1852)
William Bonaparte Woolsey (1821-1905) and Alice Bird (1825-1918)
John Dixon Lovette (1842-1917) and Mary Emily Woolsey (1844-1912)
Robert E. Headrick (1866-1917) and Uona Belle Lovette (1873-1962)
William Cecil Headrick (1904-1995) and Edith Finkelstein (1902-1970)





Here is another unconfirmed family tree, this one using Familypedia. I do not consider this tree to be valid either. These examples show why you must be careful when doing research about your family history on the internet.





Antharius III of Sicambria (77 BC-39 BC)
Francus der West-Franken (57 BC ->1 BC)
Clodius II der West-Franken (31 BC-) and Rathberius der West-Franken
Marcomir der West-Franken (14 BC-)
Clodomir I der West-Franken (3-)
Antenor III der West-Franken (25-69)
Ratherius der Franken (42-90)
Richemer der Franken (59-114) and Ascyla
Odomir der Franken (-128)
Marcomir IV der Franken (91-149) and Athildus of Britain
Clodomir IV der Franken (107-166) and Hasilda van Rugij (106-)
Farabert der Franken (122-186)
Sunno der Franken (137-213)
Hilderic der Franken (154-253)
Bartherus der Franken (171-272)
Clodius III der Franken (188-298)
Walter der Franken (205-306)
Dagobert I, King of the Franks (275-317)
Genebald I, Duke of the East Franks (296-358)
Dagobert II, Duke of the East Franks (314-379)
Clodious IV, Duke of the East Franks (332-389)
Marcomir V, Duke of the East Franks (351-404)
Pharamond, King of the Franks (370-427)
Clodio V der Franken (395-447) and Basina von Thuringen (398-)
Sigernerus I d'Auvergne (419-)
Chloderik der Franken (491-) and Saint Clothilde of Burgundy
Munderic der Franken (531-)
Mummolin der Franken (548-)
Bodegisel II der Franken (565-) and Chrodoare d'Amay (565-634)


[Unable to confirm the data above from credible sources.]


Arnoul de Metz (582-640) and St. Doda (586-612)
Ansegisel de Metz (602-662) and St. Begga (615-693)
Pépin Arnulfing d'Héristal (635-714) and Alpaïdis d'Austrasia (654-714)
Charles Martel (686-741) and Rotrude von Trier (690-724)
Founder of the Carolingian Dynasty
Pépin le bref (714-768) and Bertrada de Laon (720-783)

Charlemagne des Francs (747-814)
and Hildegarde von Vintzgau Herstal (757-783)

Pépin de Lombardie (773-810)
and Berthe Ingeltrude de Toulouse de Gellone (777-810)
Bernard de Lombardie (797-818) and Cunigunda de Laon (795-834)
Pépin de Vermandois (815-855)
and Crothais Rothaide de Corbie de Bobbio (820-858)
Héribert I de Vermandois (848-907) and Bertha de Morvois (850-923)
Héribert II de Vermandois (884-943) and Hildebranda de France (895-931)
Robert de Vermandois (918-968) and Adelaide-Werra de Chalon (920-967)
Lambert de Chalon (930-979) and Adele de Meaux (950-980)
Conan I de Rennes (927-992) and Ermengarde d'Anjou (958-1022)
Richard II de Normandie (963-1027) and Judith de Bretagne (982-1017)
Robert I Fitz Richard de Normandie (1000-1035) and Herleva de Falaise (1003-1050)

Guillaume le bâtard Fitz Robert de Normandie
William I the Conqueror of England (1027-1087)
and Matilde de Flandre (1031-1083)

Henry I of England (1068-1135) and Matilda of Scotland (1080-1118)
Geoffrey Plantagenet (1113-1151) and Princess Matilda (1102-1167)
Henry II of England (1133-1189) and Éléonore d'Aquitaine (1122-1204)
John of England (1167-1216) and Isabelle d'Angoulême (1186-1246)
Henry III of England (1207-1272) and Éléonore de Provence (1223-1291)
Edward I of England (1239-1307) and Leanor de Castilla (1241-1290)

Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276-1321)
and Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (1282-1316)
Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon (1303-1377)
and Margaret de Bohun (1311-1391)
Andrew Luttrell (1325-1395) and Elizabeth Courtenay (1333-1395)
Hugh Luttrell (1364-1428) and Katherine Beaumont (1354-1435)
John Stratton (1388-1439) and Elizabeth Luttrell (1388-1439)
John Andrews (1415-1456) and Elizabeth Stratton (1425-1474)
Thomas Windsor (1440-1485) and Elizabeth Andrews (1444-1485)
Andrew Windsor (1467-1543) and Elizabeth Blount (1469-1543)
George Ludlow (1505-1580) and Edith Windsor (1515-1563)
Thomas Ludlow of Denton (1553-1607) and Jane Pyle (1556-1650)
Gabriel Ludlow (1587-1644) and Lady Phyllis Wakelyn (1605-1657)
Col. John Carter (1613-1669) and Sarah Ludlow (1635-1668)
Robert King Carter (1663-1732) and Judith Armistead (1665-1699)
John Armistead Carter (1690-1742) and Elizabeth Hill Cocke (1708-1771)
William Evelyn Byrd (1728-1777) and Elizabeth Hill Carter (1731-1760)
John Carter Bird (1750-1830) and Mary Waller (1756-1830)
David Bird (1784-1861) and Mary Ann Broyles (1786-1852)
William Bonaparte Woolsey (1821-1905) and Alice Bird (1825-1918)
John Dixon Lovette (1842-1917) and Mary Emily Woolsey (1844-1912)
Robert E. Headrick (1866-1917) and Uona Belle Lovette (1873-1962)
William Cecil Headrick (1904-1995) and Edith Finkelstein (1902-1970)





Here is another unconfirmed family tree, this one using Geneanet again. I do not consider this tree to be valid either. It appears to validate the data going all the way back to Antharius III of Sicambria (77 BC-39 BC) in the tree above, but I cannot consider valid a tree which claims to go all the way back to Adam and Eve around 3460 BC in Mesopotamia. One major problem with the internet is that it truly has no limits, so you often do not know what is true and what is not.
























































































































[Unable to confirm the data before Arnoul de Metz from credible sources.]













































William Evelyn Byrd (1728-1777) and Elizabeth Hill Carter (1731-1760)
John Carter Bird (1750-1830) and Mary Waller (1756-1830)
David Bird (1784-1861) and Mary Ann Broyles (1786-1852)
William Bonaparte Woolsey (1821-1905) and Alice Bird (1825-1918)
John Dixon Lovette (1842-1917) and Mary Emily Woolsey (1844-1912)
Robert E. Headrick (1866-1917) and Uona Belle Lovette (1873-1962)
William Cecil Headrick (1904-1995) and Edith Finkelstein (1902-1970)









Headrick Family


Footnote: It is interesting that the Fabpedigree website says that Arnoul de Metz, Charles Martel, Emperor Constantine the Great of Rome, and even Antharius III of Sicambria were ancestors of George I of England, who was himself a descendant of William the Conqueror of England. However, this website also says that Merovec I of the Francs, Attila the Hun, and Emperor Trajan of Rome were "possible" ancestors of George I. How do they know who were "possible" ancestors and who were "definitely" ancestors ?